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《冶金自动化》 《工业计量》 《轧钢》 《金属功能材料》 《粉末冶金工业》 《中国冶金》  
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1329 Zhong-hui Hou, Xin Wei, Wei Zhang, Ze-ming Yuan, Hui Yong, Qi-lu Ge
Structure and electrochemical characteristics of Mg–Ti–Ni-based electrode alloys synthesized by mechanical milling
The vacuum induction melting was adopted to fabricating Mg50-xTixNi45Al3Co2 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 at.%) composites protected by the high-purity helium atmosphere. Subsequently, the surface modification treatment of the as-cast alloys was carried out by mechanically coating nickel. The amorphous and nanocrystalline Mg50-xTixNi45Al3Co2 (x = 0–4) ? 50 wt.% Ni hydrogen storing alloys as the negative materials in batteries were prepared through ball milling, and the influences of milling time and Ti dosage on the structure and electrochemical hydrogen storing behaviors of the corresponding samples were studied in detail. The electrochemical testing reveals that the as-milled alloys have excellent performances and can finish the electrochemical hydrogenation and dehydrogenation at indoor temperature. In the first cycle without activation, the ball milling alloy obtains the maximum value of discharge capacity. Discharge capacity and cyclic steadiness of the composites conspicuously grow as Ti content and milling duration increase. Concretely, the capacity retaining rate at 100th cycle and the discharge capacity of 30 h milling samples augment from 53% to 78% and from 435.2 to 567.2 mAh/g with changing Ti content from 0 to 4. The same performances of the alloy (x = 4) are enhanced from 61% to 78% and from 379.9 to 567.2 mAh/g, respectively, with extending milling duration. Moreover, high rate discharge ability, potential-step measurements, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectrum manifest that the electrochemical kinetics properties can achieve significant amelioration as Ti content varies and milling duration is extended.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1329-1340.
1315 Qi Li, Xin-liang Jiang, Zheng-zong Chen, Zheng-dong Liu, Liang Zuo
Thermal deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of modified IN617 alloy with different initial states
The thermal deformation behaviors of the as-cast and wrought modified IN617 nickel-based heat-resistant alloys at different temperatures (1000–1180 C) and strain rates (0.01–1 s-1) were studied. The constitutive equation was established to describe the relationship of the flow stress, temperature, and strain rate during thermal deformation. The effect of the thermal deformation conditions on the microstructure evolution of alloys was studied using electron backscatter diffraction. The results revealed that the thermal deformation activation energy of the as-cast alloy was greater than that of the wrought alloy. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process is slow at intermediate strain rate (0.1 s-1) due to the comprehensive influence of various factors, such as the critical strain of DRX nucleation and stored energy. The DRX volume fraction increases with the improvement of deformation temperature. The varied dynamic softening mechanisms induce the different thermal deformation behaviors of as-cast and wrought alloys. The dynamic recovery, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) and nucleation at slip zone caused by strain incompatibility in grains were observed during thermal deformation of as-cast alloys. In the process of thermal deformation of wrought alloys, DDRX was the primary dynamic crystallization mechanism. The continuous dynamic recrystallization was an auxiliary nucleation mechanism.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1315-1328.
1305 Jie Yang, Zong-hui Su, Feng-li Sui
Analysis on hot deformation and following cooling technology of 25Cr2Ni4MoVA steel
The true stress–true strain curves of 25Cr2Ni4MoVA steel were obtained by uniaxial compression experiments at 850–1200 ℃ in the strain rate range of 0.001–10.0 s-1. And the dynamic continuous cooling transformation curves were obtained at the cooling rate range of 0.5–15.0 ℃ s-1 from the austenitization temperature of 1000 ℃ to the room temperature by pre-strain of 0.2 as well. The power dissipation map and the dynamic continuous cooling transformation diagram were constructed based on the data provided by these curves. Compared with the optical micrographs of the compressed samples, the full dynamic recrystallization region is located between 1000 and 1200 ℃ and at the strain rate range from 0.01 to 10.0 s-1 with the power dissipation efficiency not less than 0.33. In the full dynamic recrystallization region, the power dissipation efficiency increases and the dynamic recrystallization activation energy decreases with the temperature increasing. With the strain rate decreasing, the power dissipation efficiency increases firstly and then starts to decrease as the strain rate is less than 0.1 s-1, and dynamic recrystallization activation energy changes on the contrary. According to the dynamic continuous cooling transformation diagram, slow cooling is a better way for the hot-deformed piece with large size or complex shape to avoid cracking as the temperature of the piece is lower than 400 ℃, and different cooling ways can be used for the hot-deformed piece with small size and simple shapes to obtain certain microstructure and meet good compressive properties.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1305-1314.
1291 Yang-yang Zhu, Li-kui Ning, Tong-zheng Xin, En-ze Liu, Jian Tong, Zheng Tan, Yang-tao Zhou, Zhi Zheng
Hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of an Fe–30Cr–2Mo ultra-pure super ferritic stainless steel
The hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of an Fe–30Cr–2Mo ultra-pure super ferritic stainless steel were investigated at the temperature range of 950–1150 ℃ and strain rate varying from 0.01 to 10 s-1. A strain compensated constitutive equation based on the Arrhenius-type model was established to predict the flow stress. The hot processing map based on the dynamic materials model was achieved to identify the optimum processing parameters. In addition, the features of microstructure evolution combined with the processing map were systematically investigated. The experimental results revealed that the flow stress increased with decreasing deformation temperature or increasing strain rate. Dynamic recovery was confirmed to be the predominant softening mechanism. The values of flow stress predicted by the strain compensated constitutive equation agreed well with the experimental values. The extent of dynamic recrystallization and recrystallized grain size increased with increasing deformation temperature or decreasing strain rate, and the continuous dynamic recrystallization was attributed to be the predominant mechanism of recrystallization during hot deformation. The optimum hot working parameters were determined to be the deformation temperature of 1070–1150 ℃ and strain rate of 0.1–1 s-1 with a peak power dissipation efficiency of 42%.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1291-1304.
1282 Maribel Leticia Saucedo-Mun˜oz
Precipitation kinetics of carbides during cyclical and isothermal aging of 2.25Cr–1Mo steel and its effect on mechanical properties
The carbide precipitation was analyzed during aging of 2.25Cr–1Mo steel at 550 ℃. The as-received steel was aged in two different manners: the first treatment was an isothermal aging at 550 ℃ for time up to 1000 h, and the second one was carried out by a cyclical aging, which consisted of aging at 550 ℃ for 1 h, water quenching at room temperature and then newly heating at 550 ℃. This procedure was repeated up to 300 times. The M23C6 and M6C carbide precipitation took place intragranularly and intergranularly for both aging treatments. The carbide coarsening was detected to occur with the increasing aging time. Nevertheless, the growth kinetics of precipitation occurred more rapidly in the case of cyclical aging. The specimen hardness decreased with the aging time in both cases; however, it occurred in shorter aging time for the cyclical aging. Nanoindentation testing indicated the increase in ductility with the aging time, and the cyclically aged specimens showed larger ductility than the isothermally aged specimens.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1282-1290.
1268 Jian Zhu, Zhi-hao Zhang, Jian-xin Xie
Relationship between martensite microstructure and ductility of H13 steel from aspect of crystallography
Based on the parent austenite orientation reconstruction method, it is aimed to reveal the origination of high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) and its relationship with ductility of H13 steel. The orientation relationship between martensite andparent austenite of quenched H13 samples was (123.5°, 9.3°, 192.5°), which agreed with the Kurdumov–Sachs relationship.The variant distribution of quenched samples was dominated by close-packed plane group, and its high length fraction ofV1/V2 inter-variant boundaries of calculated 62.6% was mainly contributed to HAGBs (>45°). When the quenched H13samples underwent the pre-tempering treatment, their density of HAGBs (>45°) notably increased from 1.33 to 2.39l m-1, which improved its total elongation from 8.3% to 11.5%. Compared with the quenched H13 samples, the length fraction of V1/V2 inter-variant boundaries of H13 samples with pre-tempering for 5, 10 and 60 min was reduced by 6.7%,7.0% and 7.5%, respectively. During pre-tempering treatment, V1/V3&V5 variant pairs, etc., merged V1/V2 variant pairby strain-induced grain boundary migration, which decreased the length fraction of V1/V2 inter-variant boundaries by7.0%. The pre-tempering treatment significantly increased HAGBs (>45°) of H13 samples by sub-grains coarsening andstrain-induced grain boundary migration mechanism.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1268-1281.
1259 Xiao-bing Li, Xin Dong, Peng-xiang Zhao, Wei-wei Xing, Lei-lei Ding, Nan-nan Zhang, Ying-che Ma, Kui Liu
Effect of Mg addition on temper embrittlement in 2.25Cr–1Mo steel doped with 0.056% P–Mg segregation behavior at grain boundary
To verify the microalloying function and segregation behavior of trace Mg at grain boundary in steel, the 2.25Cr–1Mo steel doped with 0.056% P containing different Mg contents was refined with a vacuum-induction furnace. The effects of trace Mg addition on the temper embrittlement susceptibility of 2.25Cr–1Mo steel were studied by step-cooling test and the segregation behavior of Mg at grain boundary was explored by Auger electron spectroscopy. It is shown that P-induced temper embrittlement susceptibility can be reduced after subjecting to step-cooling treatment with trace Mg addition, mainly benefited from the segregation of Mg at grain boundary. This segregation can decrease the segregation amounts of P and S, especially for P, and increase the grain boundary cohesion, reducing the adverse effect on temper embrittlement caused by P and S.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1259-1267.
1251 Yun-ping Ji, Ming-xing Zhang, Yuan Hou, Tong-xin Zhao, Yi-ming Li, Hui-ping Ren
Effect of Ce on solute redistribution in liquid ahead of solid–liquid interface during solidification of Fe–4 wt.%Si alloy
The high efficiency of Ce addition in grain refinement of d-ferrite in a cast Fe–4 wt.%Si alloy was verified. In order to further understand the solute effect of Ce on the grain refinement of d-ferrite, the conventional directional solidification technique, which enabled to freeze the solid–liquid interface to room temperature, was used to investigate the interfacial morphology and solute redistribution in the liquid at the front of the interface, together with thermodynamic calculation ofthe equilibrium partition coefficients of Ce and Si in Fe–4 wt.%Si–Ce system using the Equilib module and the FsSteld at a base in FactSage software system. Metallographic examination using a laser scanning confocal microscope showed a transition of the solid–liquid interface from planar to cellular in the Fe–4 wt.%Si alloy after adding 0.0260 wt.% Ce during the directional solidification experiment. Further, electron probe micro analysis revealed an enhanced segregation of Sisolute in the liquid at the front of the solid–liquid interface due to the Ce addition. This solute segregation is considered as the cause of planar to cellular interface transition, which resulted from the creation of constitutional super cooling zone.Thermodynamic calculation indicated that Ce also segregated at the solid–liquid interface and the Ce addition had negligible effect on the equilibrium partition coefficient of Si. It is reasonable to consider that the contribution of Ce to the grain refinement of d-ferrite in the cast Fe–4 wt.%Si alloy as a solute was marginal.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1251-1258.
1243 Kun Wang, Yan Liu, Masamichi Sano, Ting-an Zhang
Bubble behavior in cylindrical and square vessels under centric mechanical stirring
Water model experiments were carried out to investigate the bubble behavior in cylindrical and square vessels under centric mechanical stirring. The bubble behavior in the square vessel was investigated in detail by using a high-speed camera to record the transient images of the bubbles. An image analysis software was used to obtain the bubble diameter. The results showed that the centric mechanical stirring in the square vessel was suitable for breakage and dispersion of bubbles, but not suitable for that in the cylindrical vessel. Increasing the impeller blade length and impeller rotation speed was beneficial to disintegrate and disperse bubbles widely. The bubble diameter decreased with the increase in the Weber number and increased slightly with the increase in the modified Froude number. The dimensionless correlation equation of bubble diameter was obtained by the dimensional analysis method.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1243-1250.
1233 Ya-jun Wang, Ya-nan Zeng, Jun-guo Li, Yu-zhu Zhang, Wei Wang
Properties of ten-year-aged argon oxygen decarburization stainless steel slag
The characteristics of argon oxygen decarburization slag (AODS) for smelting stainless steel that has been aged for10 years were analyzed. Three types of AODSs distributed at three positions in a slag heap were sampled for comparison experiments. Chemical analysis, mineral phase identification, thermo gravimetric analysis, and micromorphology analysis were used to study the element migration trends and carbonation behavior of AODS after long-term aging. Sequentialleaching tests were performed to study the chromium leachability of the aged AODS. The results show that during the longterm aging process, the AODS heap had undergone oxidation and carbonation, accompanied by element migration andmineralogical evolution. The surface slag had the highest degree of carbonation but the weakest chromium leachability.The chemical composition of the middle slag was the closest to that of the original slag. In the bottom steel slag, in additionto magnesium, certain depositions of other elements were present. The matrix phases in the aged slag were dicalciumsilicate and merwinite, and the chromium was mainly wrapped in these matrix phases in the form of oxides, spinels, oralloys. Under the combined effects of carbonation and oxidation, the leaching characteristics of the chromium in the aged slag varied greatly depending on the location. The bottom slag had the strongest chromium leachability, and the hexavalentchromium had long-term continuous leachability.
钢铁研究学报(英文版)   2021 Vol. 28 (10): 1233-1242.
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