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2021 Vol.  33 No.  12
Published: 2021-12-20

Smelting and Working
Materials Research
Reviews
Reviews
1205 LIU Chenxi1, YU Huishu1, ZHANG Nannan1, ZHANG Yifan1, ZHANG Yan2
Research status of carbon fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composites
Abstract: Carbon fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composites have excellent characteristics of both reinforced materials and metal materials, which has high strength, high modulus, high wear resistance, etc. It can provide high strength, high elastic coefficient and high dimensional strength under heat conduction, conductivity and high temperature. In the application of aerospace, automotive and other industries, it shows a huge expansion capacity. Several preparation methods of carbon fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composites were introduced. The key problems and research status of preparation were reviewed from the aspects of preparation process, microstructure and mechanical properties. The problems of interface reaction, wettability, dispersibility and infiltration were analyzed. The research and development trend of carbon fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composites were prospected.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1205-1218 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 19 )
1219 ZHANG Xueliang1,2, TAO Yu1,2, QU Jinglong1,2, YANG Shufeng3, GU Yu1,2
A review of systematic analysis of superalloy cleanliness
Abstract: The detection, analysis and control of inclusions are the focus of research on superalloy cleanliness. Comprehensive and accurate analysis of the inclusion information such as morphology, composition, size and quantity is the premise for clarifying the source and formation mechanism of inclusions in superalloys, and is also the basis for controlling and improving superalloy cleanliness. The systematic analysis methods of superalloy cleanliness were described in detail from the aspects of sample detection volume, sample detection efficiency, reliability of detection results, obtaining characteristic information of inclusions, their advantages and disadvantages, including traditional twodimensional detection methods such as metallographic method and scanning electron microscope method, large sample electrolysis method, electron beam melting method and nondestructive detection. Systematic analysis is benefit for the accurately evaluation of inclusion information and superalloy cleanliness, which has a guiding role for the production of ultrapurified superalloys.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1219-1227 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 13 )
Smelting and Working
1228 XIA Xiuhao, ZHOU Lianyong, MA Huaqing, ZHAO Yongzhi
Effect of particle shape model on DEM simulation of charging process in blast furnace
Abstract: In blast furnace (BF), the particles charging behavior and burden distribution in charging process directly affect furnace productivity and energy consumption, and it is essential to understand the influence of particles characteristics on charging behavior and burden distribution, especially the effect of particle shape. The spherical and nonspherical discrete element method (DEM) were used to simulate the charging process in 4000m3 BF top, the charging behavior and the burden distribution of singlering and multiring charging with different particle shape models were comparatively studied. The results show that polyhedral particles lose more momentum than spherical particles when contacting the chute, resulting in the drop point of polyhedrons closer to the furnace center. Moreover, the burden topography, interlayer percolation, packing stability and porosity distribution of polyhedral particles are different from those of spherical particles. In addition, it is found that spherical particle with proper rolling friction is close to charging behavior of polyhedron in terms of the falling velocity and burden distribution of singlering charging, but it is not sufficient to account for burden distribution and porosity distribution of multiring charging.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1228-1236 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 13 )
1237 LI Zhanguo1, ZHANG Jianliang1, LIU Zhengjian1, WANG Yaozu2, NIU Lele2
Mechanisms of grate sticking phenomenon in iron ore sintering
Abstract: The phenomenon of grate sticking is an important common problem in iron ore sintering production, which has an adverse impact on sintering economic and technical indexes and equipment. In order to clarify and solve this problem, the mineral phase characteristics of grate paste plug were classified and analyzed. Then the formation mechanism and influencing factors of grate paste plug in sintering pallet from three aspects of raw materials conditions, technical parameters and grate properties were analyzed, respectively, and finally the technical measures and control requirements to prevent and solve the gratesticking problem based on the mineral phase characteristics and formation mechanism of grate paste plug were summarized. The research results have certain reference significance for clarifying the mechanism of grate sticking, preventing grate sticking and promoting the stability of iron ore sintering production.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1237-1244 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 11 )
1245 YANG Shuangping, GAO Wenbin, WANG Yuping, LI Jianghan
Study on consolidation mechanism of hematite pellets with internal blending semicoke
Abstract: The mechanism of internal blending semicoke in the roasting process of hematite pellets can be obtained through the FeO content detection and mineral phase structure analysis of pellets with different roasting temperatures and different semicoke blending contents. The results show when the content of blue carbon is low, combustion reaction mainly occurs, which is not conducive to the transformation from hematite to magnetite, and the increase of porosity reduces the compressive strength of pellets. And also, the combustion of semicoke causes overheating, resulting in a significant decrease in the compressive strength of pellets. The reduction reaction, that is reduction of Fe2O3 to Fe3O4, or even to FeO, is dominant with high semicoke content, followed by the formation of iron olivine. Based on the experiment, the maximum compressive strength of semicoke internal blending hematite pellet is 2708.8N, with the optimal semicoke internal blend ratio of 1.5%, roasted at 1300℃ for 18.5min, with air flow of 3.2L/min.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1245-1252 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 18 )
1253 LIU Junhan1, HUANG Mingrong1, SUN Junjie1,2, DI Zhanxia1, REN Hui1
Study on material flow trajectory with DEM for bellless top charging of blast furnace
Abstract: Discrete element simulation technology is widely used to study the law of burden movement in the charging process of blast furnace, and its method of calculating bulk material movement has been recognized by domestic and foreign experts. SOLIDWORKS and EDEM′s Geometry were used to establish the geometric models for the charging system of a bellless top blast furnace, and numerical simulations were conducted with DEM physical properties of charging materials. The influences of the inclination angle of chute, the depth of stock line, and the structure of chute on the movement trajectory of the charge particles were studied. The results show that the radius of the coke landing point increases with the increase of the inclination angle of the chute. When the inclination angle is 13.3°, the burden does not contact the chute during the falling process. As the depth of the stock line increases, the radius of the coke landing position also increases, but the increment decreases. Under the same inclination angle, the radius of landing position of the rectangular chute is 0.3m smaller than that of the semicircular chute, the material flow is more concentrated, and the charging result is slightly better. Compared with smooth chute, the chute with lining leads to a smaller radius of landing position (less than 0.13m) and a smaller width of material flow when the coke is distributed charged. The lining can also reduce the wear of chute surface of through the friction between particles and extend the service life of the chute.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1253-1259 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 15 )
1260 LIU Shaohan1,2, HAN Yihua1,2, ZHU Liguang2,3
Mathematical model of magnetic field distribution of molten steel in softcontact electromagnetic continuous casting mold of billet
Abstract: A mathematical model of magnetic field distribution in molten steel was established based on the billet softcontact electromagnetic continuous casting mold. The model was used in studying the characteristics of uneven magnetic field distribution and simulating the influence of different cutting slit forms, magnetic field frequency and liquid level height on the magnetic field distribution in molten steel with the slag film, and the results were verified. The results show that the reflection of the copper wall on the magnetic field results in the superposition of the magnetic field in the slit. The existence of slag film can improve the uniformity of magnetic field in molten steel. The cutting seam should be designed as narrow at the bottom and wide at the top. The length and width of the cutting seam should be controlled at 180-200mm and 0.8-1.0mm, and more cutting seams should be opened. The increase of magnetic field frequency is not conducive to the uniformity of magnetic field in molten steel, so it should be kept at 20-30kHz as far as possible. The increase of liquid steel level is helpful to improve the longitudinal uniformity of magnetic field in liquid steel. The reasonable liquid level should be controlled as far as possible in the upper position of coil center.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1260-1269 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 12 )
Materials Research
1270 HONG Gang1, LIU Huasong1, DONG Yannan1, ZHENG Hongguang2, XU Guodong2, ZHANG Jiaquan1
Study on kinetics of austenite grain growth of microalloyed peritectic steels under high temperatures
Abstract:In order to control the austenite grain size on the slab surface to reduce the surface or corner cracks, the kinetics of austenite grain growth under high temperatures was studied. The isothermal heat preservation experiment of the microalloyed peritectic steels was carried out at the temperatures of 1573-1723K. The austenite grain growth kinetic model of the experimental steels was obtained by fitting the austenite grain size data. Then the grain growth kinetics under high temperatures was investigated. The results show two distinct temperature ranges for austenite grain growth. When the holding temperature is within 1573-1673K, austenite grains grow slowly, and the time exponent is smaller than 035. But when the holding temperature is higher than 1673K, austenite grains grow quickly, and the time exponent is close to 05. Based on the model analysis, it is believed that the austenite grain growth at slab surface mainly occurs above 1673K. Therefore, suppressing the initial austenite grain growth should be conducted at the high temperature range after the formation of austenite.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1270-1277 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 10 )
1278 JI Meifeng1, HU Feng1, ZHANG Liqin1,2, WU Kaiming1,2
Effect of inclusions on toughness for low alloy high strength steel CGHAZ
Abstract: The influence of different inclusion particles on the impact toughness of lowalloy highstrength steel CGHAZ of 200kJ/cm high heat input welding lowalloy highstrength steel was studied by Ca and Mg treatment process. The microstructure, grain size and impact energy of each specimen CGHAZ were observed and analyzed. The test results show that in the lowalloy highstrength steel CGHAZ, the impact properties of Mgtreated steel were significantly higher than that of Catreated steel. The main reason is that the precipitation ability of Mg inclusion particles is stronger than that of Ca inclusion particles. In the welding course, Mg inclusion particles have more significant pinning effect on CGHAZ microstructure, not only increasing the content of acicular ferrite, extending the crack propagation path, but also increasing the energy absorbed during fracture, and improving the toughness of the specimen.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1278-1288 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 11 )
1289 SU Cheng1,2, FENG Guanghong1, ZHI Jianguo2, WU Wei1, WANG Shaobin2
Effect of rare earth on low temperature impact toughness of NM400 wearresistant steel plate
Abstract: The rare earth NM400 hot rolled coil was developed by double refining LF+RH smelting process and onestep Q&P process of 2250mm hot rolling mill. The effect of rare earth on the inclusions modification, microstructure and low temperature impact toughness of NM400 was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and energy spectrum analysis,focusing on the mechanism analysis of trace rare earth elements to improve the impact energy of NM400 at low temperature. The results show that by adding trace rare earths, which is easy to combine [O] and [S] in steel to form a approximately spherical RE-S-O compound with a high melting point, which effectively reduces the formation probability of MnS and Al2O3CaO composite inclusions, and play a heteronucleation role in the solidification process of molten steel, refining the microstructure of the product, improving the low temperature toughness of wearresistant steel. Especially at -60℃, the transverse impact energy of NM400 rare earth wearresisting steel is increased by 92.3% compared with conventional NM400 wearresisting steel, which makes up for the poor toughness of conventional wearresisting steel at low temperature and expands the use conditions of wearresisting steel.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1289-1295 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 10 )
1296 CHANG Zhuo1, 2, YANG Jun1, XU Lijun2, QIU Shengtao2, SHI Pengzhao2,TIAN Yushi2
Study on surface microcracks of Q355R continuous casting slab
Abstract: The main factor that affects the quality of continuous casting slab is crack, which has many causes and complex influencing factors. The microcracks on the surface of the Q355R continuous casting slab, it is characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer at the typical cracks of the cast slab. Through further analyzing the formation mechanism of crack, the continuous casting process was optimized and improved. The results showed that the morphology of the microcracks on the surface of the cast slab is different from the traditional reticulated star crack and transverse facial crack. The crack end is mainly blunt and has no extension end, besides, there are fine lines of microcracks at the upper end of the individual crack. The crack end is a "needle" shape and exists an extension section. The formation of microcracks is mainly caused by mold slag entrapment, molten steel reoxidation, high liquid steel superheat, and external stress in the bending and straightening area of the continuous casting machine. The microcracking on the slab surface has been effectively controlled, which by optimizing the nozzle structure, improving the mold flow field, weakening the mold slag entrapment, and optimizing the continuous casting process.
2021 Vol. 33 (12): 1296-1306 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 0KB] ( 11 )
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